The Analysis of Lexico-Grammar Features (Discourse Analysis Approach)


In a comprehensive analysis of the language and the maximum, were quires a model that is able to explore the language of science, not only by formal grammatical rules, but also to understand the function and meaning of each linguistic unit is contained in a text. In reviewing the scientific study of language one needs to look at is the aspect of the discourse on language. The study can be discussed are either spoken or written text. One analysis in the text in relation language usage in a cultural context and situational analysis is through Lexico-grammar, how to structure the use of language by language testing at the highest stratum. In Lexico-grammar involves experiential, interpersonal and textual meaning in a text expressing contect both through words and structure used by the speaker. In grammar Lexico also examine some basic principles of the grammatical system and views multifunctional perspective on clause. Frequently encountered in the study of Lexico-grammar this example, the analysis will try to analyze the text of the Lexico-grammar. Here the authors will determine Lexico-grmmatical feature of the text with the following steps: The first author would analyze of three text below and determine the basic principles of any text such as: extending the system, the demand to make of language and the principle of grammatical analysis: unit and constituency. we can perform the analysis of the function of language throughlexico-grammatical features, namely transitivity, mood, and linguistic features cohesion.Its are able to demonstrate the intent and objectives contained in a text.

In analyzes lexio-grammar feature we can see a number of aspects that occur or exist in the study text on discourse approach. Featured in Lexico grammar are organized into main system extending the system, the demand to make of language and the principle of grammatical analysis: unit and constituency

1. Extending the system

Lexico-grammar in linguistics portrait of mid-level coding. And what is the function of that level. Can we demonstrated at the traffic light semiotic system, consisting of. Adding new context.

a. new context might add there is no pink mass that can be interpreted as a "reserve".

b. Simultaneous meaning, which can be complex to introduce new signs and introducing a sequence of sig

2. Demand to make of language

Here, a speaker may contain language that he wants to use in a variety convey of him can be a new thing and mean anything. In demand to the make of language consists of two general categories:

a. Lexico-grammar: the different, has an intermediate level of lexico-grammar, what we ore informally refer as the grammatical level to free language from the constraint of bi-uniqueness.

b. Extending language, it provide language with an inbuilt creative potential can be demonstrated by attempting to extend language, it like make a new lexical meaning.

c. Simultaneous meaning in language, a way of creating new meaning by inventing new sign which then get incorporated into lexico-grammar of the language.

3. The Principle of grammar analysis: unit and constituent.

These are consist of 5 approach as follow:

a. Constituent of the content plane, In this analysis, writer will analyses Language as content, not expression. Form the largest and the smallest units of meaning.

b. Bracketing, To make infinite meaning from finite expression units and to make meaning simultaneously. There description its can be show in tree diagram or bracketing

c. Embedding, or rank shift, here we will find that sometimes a clause constituent seems to be a complex structure in itself. The important of structure of clause is bracket the following clause.

d. Labeling, divide any clause into the constituents which make it up, and on the basis our minimal bracketing we can make comments about the frequency and type of embedding that we observe.

e. Multi functional of clause constituents: simultaneous meaning, we need to develop three sets of functional labels to describe clause structure in order to reveal how the clause is a simultaneous realization, interpersonal and textual meaning.

After the explanation above, we will go on the analyses text below:


1. Fred is 32 year old and he still single = Adding new context

2. One day a friend asked, “Why aren’t you married? Can’t you find a woman who will be a good wife?” = Lexico-grammar: the different

3. Fred replied, “actually, I’ve found many women I wanted to marry, but when I bring them home to meet my parents, my mothers doesn’t like them.” = Extending language

4. His friend thinks for a moment and says, “I’ve got the perfect solution, just find a girl who’s just like our mother.” = Simultaneous meaning in language

5. A few months later they meet again and his friend says, “did you find the perfect girl? did you’re your mother like her? = Extending language

6. With a frown on his face, Fred answers, “Yes. I found the perfect girl. She was just like my mother. You were right, my mother liked her very much.” = Lexico-grammar: the different

7. The friend said, “Then what’s the problem?” = Simultaneous meaning (complex sign)

8. Fred replied, “my father doesn’t like her.” = Simultaneous meaning in language


1. Trick or Treat

2. Halloween is probably the most captivating of the year. = Adding new context

3. This is the one time when everyone can dress up as their favorite character and get free candy for the effort. = Extending language

4. But Halloween isn’t all just about putting on scary costumes and trick-or-treating. = Simultaneous meaning

5. We’ve fund some fun facts about this tradition that you may not have known.= Simultaneous meaning

6. Although Halloween is seen as an American tradition, it originated in Ireland almost 2,000 year ago as ritual to keep evil spirit away! Or course now we know that evil spirit done actually exist… or do they? = Simultaneous meaning

7. We all know the colors linked to Halloween are orange and black, but do you know why? Orange is a symbol for the autumn harvest predictably back symbolizes darkness and death. = Lexico-grammar: the different

8. Though Halloween is associated with all things dark, it should really be called the sweetest holiday. = Lexico-grammar: the different

9. Why? Because a quarter of all candy sales during the year occur during the Halloween period. When you’re put trick-or treating, expect some Snickers, because they are the number one candy of choice for this holiday. = Extending language

10. Another thing you should expect to see are jack-o-lanterns, made from carved pumpkins. In the United States, the Halloween capital of the world, 99 percent of all pumpkins sold throughout the year are carved into jack-o-lanterns.

11. The people of Boston, Massachusetts, seem the most enthusiastic: they told the record for setting out 30,128 jack-o-lanterns lit a once. = Simultaneous meaning

12. We all know it is bad luck to see black cats or vampire’s bats, but what does mean to see a spider on Halloween? You’ll be happy to know that seeing spiders id actually something to be happy about; it simply means the spirit of a loved one is watching over you. =Lexico-grammar: the different

13. Although Halloween is not quite as big in Indonesia as it is in the USA, it sure gives you an excuse to dress up!= Extending language

14. Tim O Lantern, master of dark artwork

15. As October kicks in, Halloween looms and my thoughts turn to all things Goth. If there’s one person I associate with this fun holiday, it’s the creative master of dark and quirky movies an art; Tim Burton. = Simultaneous meaning

16. Does the name sound familiar? You’ve heard seen some of his movies, like the blockbuster, Alice in wonderland and Batman series. = Extending language

1. Bynamic Fest rock BinusSerpong

2. The biannual event organized by Bina Nusantara International School (Binus) Serpong on September 17 had something for everyone. = Simultaneous meaning

3. Bynamic Fest 2011 put together at performance roster that impressed invitees and visitors alike. = Simultaneous meaning

4. As its main goal was to promote the nation’s motto Diversity in Unity and reintroduce Indonesia young people, during the event visitors could enjoy Indonesia traditional dishes, traditional music and dance performances, a wayang exhibition and even a unique fashion show of traditional costumers where the models converted the running track into a catwalk near the stage on the school’s sport field. = Extending language

5. The event was indeed a platform for students to show off their talents through arts, music and revolutionary acts. =Lexico-grammar: the different

6. They produced unique T-shirt and bag that were almost sold out by the afternoon, hours before the whole event wrapped up at around 11 p.m.= Simultaneous meaning

7. While the kite-flying community showed off their aerial skills, a dancing flash mob popped up from crowded and stole the show. = Simultaneous meaning

8. A line up of performers then took the stage to entertain visitors who had been on the spot since the event opened at 10. a.m.=Lexico-grammar: the different

9. The organizer expressed hope that the event could help promote national program to preserve cultures, protection of environment as well as the promotion of tourism. = Simultaneous meaning

10. It was a successful event and we were guaranteed more creativity over the next two years = Extending language

The Principle of grammar analysis: unit and constituent


A. Constituent of the content plane:

1. (Fred) (is) (32 year old) (and) (he) (still single)

2. (One day) (a friend asked,) (“Why aren’t you married? Can’t you find a woman who will be a good wife?”)

3. (Fred replied,) (“actually, I’ve found many women I wanted to marry, but when I bring them home to meet my parents, my mothers doesn’t like them.”)

4. (His friend) (thinks for a moment and says,) (“I’ve got the perfect solution, just find a girl who’s just like our mother.”)

5. (A few months later) (they) (meet again) (and his friend says,) (“did you find the perfect girl? did you’re your mother like her?)

6. (With a frown) (on his face,) (Fred answers,) (“Yes. I found the perfect girl. She was just like my mother. You were right, my mother liked her very much.”)

7. (The friend said,) (“Then what’s the problem?”)

8. (Fred replied,) (“my father doesn’t like her.”)

B. Bracketing:

1. (Fred) (is) ((32)(year)(old)) (and) (he) ((still)(single))

2. ((One)(day)) ((a)(friend)(asked,)) (“Why aren’t you married? Can’t you find a woman who will be a good wife?”)

3. ((Fred)(replied,)) (“actually, I’ve found many women I wanted to marry, but when I bring them home to meet my parents, my mothers doesn’t like them.”)

4. ((His)(friend)) ((thinks)(for)(a)(moment)(and)(says,)) (“I’ve got the perfect solution, just find a girl who’s just like our mother.”)

5. ((A)(few)(months)(later)) (they) ((meet)(again)) ((and)(his)(friend)(says,)) (“did you find the perfect girl? did you’re your mother like her?)

6. ((With)(a)(frown)) ((on)(his)(face,)) ((Fred)(answers,)) (“Yes. I found the perfect girl. She was just like my mother. You were right, my mother liked her very much.”)

7. ((The)(friend)(said,)) (“Then what’s the problem?”)

8. ((Fred)(replied,)) (“my father doesn’t like her.”)


A. Constituent of the content plane:

1. (Trick or Treat)

2. (Halloween) (is) (probably) (the most captivating) (of the year).

3. (This) (is) (the one time) (when) (everyone) (can dress up) (as their favorite character) (and) (get free candy) (for the effort.)

4. (But Halloween) (isn’t all) (just about) (putting on scary costumes) (and) (trick-or-treating).

5. (We’ve) (fund) (some fun facts) (about this tradition) (that you may not) (have known).

6. (Although) (Halloween) (is seen) (as an American tradition,) (it originated) (in Ireland) (almost 2,000 year ago) (as ritual) (to keep) (evil) spirit away!) (Of course) (now) (we) (know) (that evil spirit) (done actually exist)… (or do they?)

7. (We all) (know) (the colors linked) (to Halloween) (are orange and black,) (but do you know why?) (Orange) (is a symbol) (for the autumn harvest) (while predictably) (black) (symbolizes darkness and death.)

8. (Though Halloween) (is associated) (with all things dark,) (it) (should really) (be called) (the sweetest holiday.) (Why?) (Because) (a quarter) (of all candy) (sales during the year) (occur during) (the Halloween period.)

9. (When) (you’re) (put trick-or treating,) (expect some Snickers,) (because) (they) (are the number one candy) (of choice) (for this holiday.)

10. (Another thing) (you should expect) (to see) (are jack-o-lanterns,) (made) (from carved pumpkins.) (In the United States,) (the Halloween) (capital of the world,) (99 percent) (of all) pumpkins) (sold throughout the year) (are carved) (into jack-o-lanterns.)

11. (The people of Boston,) (Massachusetts,) (seem the most enthusiastic:) (they) (told the record) (for setting) (out 30,128 jack-o-lanterns lit) (a once.)

12. (We all) (know it is bad luck) (to see black cats) (or vampire’s bats,) (but) (what does) (mean to see a spider) (on Halloween?) (You’ll) (be happy) (to know) (that seeing spiders) (is actually something) (to be happy about;) (it) (simply) (means the spirit) (of a loved one) (is watching over you.)

13. (Although Halloween) (is not quite) (as big in Indonesia) (as it) (is in the USA,) (it sure) (gives you) (an excuse) (to dress up!)

14. (Tim O Lantern,) (master) (of dark artwork)

15. (As October) (kicks in,) (Halloween looms) (and my thoughts turn) (to all things Goth.) (If there’s) (one person) (I associate) (with this fun) (holiday,) (it’s) (the creative master) (of dark) (and quirky movies) (an art;) (Tim Burton.)

16. (Does) (the name) (sound familiar?) (You’ve) (heard seen) (some of his movies,) (like the blockbuster,) (Alice in wonderland) (and Batman series.)

B. Bracketing:

1. ((Trick) (or) (Treat))

2. (Halloween) (is) (probably) ((the) (most) (captivating)) ((of) (the) (year)).

3. (This) (is) ((the) (one) (time)) (when) (everyone) ((can) (dress) (up)) ((as) (their) (favorite) (character)) (and) ((get) (free) (candy)) ((for) (the) (effort.))

4. ((But) (Halloween)) ((isn’t) (all)) ((just) (about) ((putting) (on) (scary) (costumes)) (and) ((trick)-(or)-(treating)).

5. (We’ve) (fund) ((some) (fun) (facts)) ((about) (this) (tradition)) ((that) (you) (may) (not)) ((have) (known)).

6. (Although) (Halloween) ((is) (seen)) ((as) (an) (American) (tradition,)) ((it) (originated)) ((in) (Ireland)) ((almost) (2,000) (year) (ago)) ((as) (ritual)) ((to) (keep)) (evil) ((spirit) (away!)) (Of course) (now) (we) (know) ((that) (evil) (spirit)) ((done) (actually) (exist))… ((or) (do) (they?))

7. ((We) (all)) (know) ((the) (colors) (linked)) ((to) (Halloween)) ((are) (orange) (and) (black,)) ((but) (do) (you) (know) (why?)) (Orange) ((is) (a) (symbol)) ((for) (the) (autumn) (harvest)) ((while) (predictably)) (black) ((symbolizes) (darkness) (and) (death.))

8. ((Though) (Halloween)) ((is) (associated)) ((with) (all) (things) (dark,)) (it) ((should) (really)) ((be) (called)) ((the) (sweetest) (holiday.))

9. (Why?) (Because) ((a) (quarter)) ((of) (all) (candy)) ((sales) (during) (the) (year)) ((occur) (during)) ((the) (Halloween) (period.)) (When) (you’re) ((put) (trick)-(or)-(treating,)) ((expect) (some) (Snickers,)) (because) (they) ((are) (the) (number) (one) (candy)) ((of) (choice)) ((for) (this) (holiday.))

10. ((Another) (thing)) ((you) (should) (expect)) ((to) (see)) ((are) (jack)-(o)-(lanterns,)) (made) ((from) (carved) (pumpkins.))

11. ((In) (the) (United States,)) ((the) (Halloween)) ((capital) (of) (the) (world,)) ((99) (percent)) ((of) (all)) (pumpkins)) ((sold) (throughout) (the) (year)) ((are) (carved)) ((into) (jack)-(o)-(lanterns.))

12. ((The) (people) (of) (Boston,)) (Massachusetts,) ((seem) (the) (most) (enthusiastic:)) (they) ((told) (the) (record) (for) (setting)) ((out) (30,128) (jack)-(o)-(lanterns) (lit)) ((a) (once.))

13. ((We) (all)) ((know) (it) (is) (bad) (luck)) ((to) (see) (black) (cats)) ((or) (vampire’s) (bats,)) (but) ((what) (does)) ((mean) (to) (see) (a) (spider)) ((on) (Halloween?)) (You’ll) ((be) (happy)) ((to) (know)) ((that) (seeing) (spiders)) ((is) (actually) (something)) ((to) (be) (happy) (about;)) (it) (simply) ((means) (the) (spirit)) ((of) (a) (loved) (one)) ((is) (watching) (over) (you.)) ((Although) (Halloween)) ((is) (not) (quite)) ((as) (big) (in) (Indonesia)) ((as) (it)) ((is) (in) (the) (USA,)) ((it) (sure)) ((gives) (you)) ((an) (excuse)) ((to) (dress) (up!))

14. (Tim O Lantern,) (master) ((of) (dark) (artwork))

15. ((As) (October)) ((kicks) (in,)) ((Halloween) (looms)) ((and) (my) (thoughts) (turn)) ((to) (all) (things) (Goth.)) ((If) (there’s)) ((one) (person)) ((I) (associate)) ((with) (this) (fun)) (holiday,) (it’s) ((the) (creative) (master)) ((of) (dark)) ((and) (quirky) (movies)) ((an) (art;)) (Tim Burton.)

16. (Does) ((the) (name) ((sound) (familiar?)) (You’ve) ((heard) (seen)) ((some) (of) (his) (movies,)) ((like) (the) (blockbuster,)) ((Alice) (in) (wonderland)) ((and) (Batman) (series.))


A. Constituent of the content plane:

1. (Bynamic Fest)(rock BinusSerpong)

2. (The biannual event)(organized)(by Bina Nusantara International School (Binus) Serpong)(on September 17)(had)(something for everyone.)

3. (Bynamic Fest 2011)(put together)(at performance roster)(that impressed invitees)(and visitors alike.)

4. (As its main goal)(was to promote)(the nation’s motto)(Diversity in Unity)(and reintroduce)(Indonesia young people,)(during the event)(visitors could)(enjoy Indonesia traditional dishes,)(traditional music)(and dance performances,)(a wayang exhibition)(and even)(a unique fashion show)(of traditional costumers)(where the models converted)(the running track)(into a catwalk)(near the stage)(on the school’s sport field.)

5. (The event)(was indeed a platform)(for students)(to show off)(their talents)(through arts,)(music)(and revolutionary acts.)

6. (They)(produced)(unique T-shirt)(and bag)(that were almost)(sold out)(by the afternoon,)(hours)(before the whole event wrapped up)(at around 11 p.m.)

7. (While)(the kite-flying community)(showed off)(their aerial skills,)(a dancing flash mob popped up)(from crowded)(and stole the show.)

8. (A line up of performers)(then took)(the stage)(to entertain)(visitors)(who had been)(on the spot)(since the event)(opened at 10. a.m.)

9. (The organizer)(expressed hope)(that the event)(could help)(promote national program)(to preserve cultures,)(protection of environment)(as well as the promotion)(of tourism.)

10. (It)(was a successful event)(and we)(were guaranteed)(more creativity)(over the next two years)

B. Bracketing:

1. (Bynamic Fest) ((rock)(BinusSerpong))

2. ((The) (biannual) (event)) (organized) ((by) (Bina Nusantara International School) (Binus) (Serpong)) ((on) (September) (17)) (had) ((something)(for)(everyone.))

3. ((Bynamic)(Fest)(2011)) ((put)(together)) ((at)(performance)(roster)) ((that)(impressed)(invitees)) ((and)(visitors)(alike.))

4. ((As)(its)(main)(goal)) ((was)(to)(promote)) ((the)(nation’s)(motto)) ((Diversity)(in)(Unity)) ((and)(reintroduce)) ((Indonesia)(young)(people,)) ((during)(the)(event)) (visitors)((could) (enjoy)(Indonesia)(traditional)(dishes,)) ((traditional)(music)) ((and)(dance)(performances,)) ((a)(wayang)(exhibition)) ((and)(even)) ((a)(unique)(fashion)(show)) ((of)(traditional)(costumers)) ((where)(the)(models)(converted)) ((the)(running)(track)) ((into)(a)(catwalk)) ((near)(the)(stage)) ((on)(the)(school’s)(sport)(field.))

5. ((The)(event)) ((was)(indeed)(a)(platform)) ((for students)) ((to)(show)(off)) ((their)(talents)) ((through)(arts,)) (music) ((and)(revolutionary)(acts.))

6. (They) (produced) ((unique)(T-shirt)) ((and)(bag)) ((that)(were)(almost)) ((sold)(out)) ((by)(the)(afternoon,)) (hours) ((before)(the)(whole)(event)(wrapped up)) ((at)(around)(11)(p.m.))

7. (While) ((the)(kite)-(flying)(community)) ((showed off)) ((their)(aerial)(skills,)) ((a)(dancing)(flash)(mob)(popped)(up)) ((from)(crowded)) ((and)(stole)(the)(show.))

8. ((A)(line up)(of)(performers)) ((then)(took)) ((the)(stage)) ((to)(entertain)) (visitors) ((who)(had)(been)) ((on)(the)(spot)) ((since)(the)(event)) ((opened)(at)(10.)(a.m.))

9. ((The)(organizer)) ((expressed)(hope)) ((that)(the)(event)) ((could)(help)) ((promote)(national)(program)) ((to)(preserve)(cultures,)) ((protection)(of)(environment)) ((as)(well)(as)(the)(promotion)) ((of)(tourism.))

10. (It) ((was)(a)(successful)(event)) ((and)(we)) ((were)(guaranteed)) ((more)(creativity)) ((over)(the)(next)(two)(years))

Through analyze above then we will know the various features in lexcio-grammar and principles used in reviewing the text of each approach. Lexico-grammar has relation study closely in semantics. trough report described a number of the existing text in the mentioned above in such a way. And the authors recognize that the above analysis is not so clear but at least there was an attempt to complete the task.


Eggins, Suzanne .(1994). An introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics. London: Pinter Publishers

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